element and a thermogenerator are identical in terms of their
layout, but they are used for different purposes. The Peltier
element consists of a block with several thermocouples that are
electrically connected in series and thermally connected in
parallel so that their thermoelectric voltages are added up. If one
side of a thermocouple is colder than the other side, electric
voltage is generated. If voltage is applied to a thermocouple,
current flows through the component and a temperature difference
results: one side becomes colder and the other side becomes warmer.
The effect is called the Peltier effect.